Tuesday, 4 February 2014

DBMS | RDBMS | Database Navathe PDF Download Ebook


A database is an organized collection of data. The data are typically organized to model relevant aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring this information. For example, modeling the availability of rooms in hotels in a way that supports finding a hotel with vacancies.

Database management systems (DBMSs) are specially designed software applications that interact with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS is a software system designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases. Well-known DBMSs include MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL, SQLite, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, SAP, dBASE, FoxPro, IBM DB2, LibreOffice Base and FileMaker Pro. A database is not generally portable across different DBMS, but different DBMSs can interoperate by using standards such as SQL and ODBC or JDBC to allow a single application to work with more than one database.

Relational Database Management System

A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model as introduced by E. F. Codd, of IBM's San Jose Research Laboratory. Many popular databases currently in use are based on the relational database model.

RDBMSs have become since the 1980s a predominant choice for the storage of information in new databases used for financial records, manufacturing and logistical information, personnel data, and much more. Relational databases have often replaced legacy hierarchical databases and network databases because they are easier to understand and use. However, relational databases have been challenged by object databases, which were introduced in an attempt to address the object-relational impedance mismatch in relational database, and XML databases

Different Kinds of Database

An in-memory database is a database that primarily resides in main memory, but is typically backed-up by non-volatile computer data storage. Main memory databases are faster than disk databases, and so are often used where response time is critical, such as in telecommunications network equipment.[16]SAP HANA platform is a very hot topic for in-memory database. By May 2012, HANA was able to run on servers with 100TB main memory powered by IBM. The co founder of the company claimed that the system was big enough to run the 8 largest SAP customers.

An active database includes an event-driven architecture which can respond to conditions both inside and outside the database. Possible uses include security monitoring, alerting, statistics gathering and authorization. Many databases provide active database features in the form of database triggers.

A cloud database relies on cloud technology. Both the database and most of its DBMS reside remotely, "in the cloud," while its applications are both developed by programmers and later maintained and utilized by (application's) end-users through a web browser and Open APIs.

Data warehouses archive data from operational databases and often from external sources such as market research firms. The warehouse becomes the central source of data for use by managers and other end-users who may not have access to operational data. For example, sales data might be aggregated to weekly totals and converted from internal product codes to use UPCs so that they can be compared with ACNielsen data. Some basic and essential components of data warehousing include retrieving, analyzing, and mining data, transforming, loading and managing data so as to make them available for further use.

A deductive database combines logic programming with a relational database, for example by using the Datalog language.

A distributed database is one in which both the data and the DBMS span multiple computers.

A document-oriented database is designed for storing, retrieving, and managing document-oriented, or semi structured data, information. Document-oriented databases are one of the main categories of NoSQL databases.

An embedded database system is a DBMS which is tightly integrated with an application software that requires access to stored data in such a way that the DBMS is hidden from the application’s end-users and requires little or no ongoing maintenance.[17]

End-user databases consist of data developed by individual end-users. Examples of these are collections of documents, spreadsheets, presentations, multimedia, and other files. Several products exist to support such databases. Some of them are much simpler than full fledged DBMSs, with more elementary DBMS functionality.

A federated database system comprises several distinct databases, each with its own DBMS. It is handled as a single database by a federated database management system (FDBMS), which transparently integrates multiple autonomous DBMSs, possibly of different types (in which case it would also be a heterogeneous database system), and provides them with an integrated conceptual view.

Sometimes the term multi-database is used as a synonym to federated database, though it may refer to a less integrated (e.g., without an FDBMS and a managed integrated schema) group of databases that cooperate in a single application. In this case typically middleware is used for distribution, which typically includes an atomic commit protocol (ACP), e.g., the two-phase commit protocol, to allow distributed (global) transactions across the participating databases.

A graph database is a kind of NoSQL database that uses graph structures with nodes, edges, and properties to represent and store information. General graph databases that can store any graph are distinct from specialized graph databases such as triplestores and network databases.

In a hypertext or hypermedia database, any word or a piece of text representing an object, e.g., another piece of text, an article, a picture, or a film, can be hyperlinked to that object. Hypertext databases are particularly useful for organizing large amounts of disparate information. For example, they are useful for organizing online encyclopedias, where users can conveniently jump around the text. The World Wide Web is thus a large distributed hypertext database.

A knowledge base (abbreviated KB, kb or Δ[18][19]) is a special kind of database for knowledge management, providing the means for the computerized collection, organization, and retrieval of knowledge. Also a collection of data representing problems with their solutions and related experiences.

A mobile database can be carried on or synchronized from a mobile computing device.

Operational databases store detailed data about the operations of an organization. They typically process relatively high volumes of updates using transactions. Examples include customer databases that record contact, credit, and demographic information about a business' customers, personnel databases that hold information such as salary, benefits, skills data about employees, enterprise resource planning systems that record details about product components, parts inventory, and financial databases that keep track of the organization's money, accounting and financial dealings.

A parallel database seeks to improve performance through parallelization for tasks such as loading data, building indexes and evaluating queries.The major parallel DBMS architectures which are induced by the underlying hardware architecture are:

  • Shared memory architecture, where multiple processors share the main memory space, as well as other data storage.
  • Shared disk architecture, where each processing unit (typically consisting of multiple processors) has its own main memory, but all units share the other storage.
  • Shared nothing architecture, where each processing unit has its own main memory and other storage.

Probabilistic databases employ fuzzy logic to draw inferences from imprecise data.

Real-time databases process transactions fast enough for the result to come back and be acted on right away.

A spatial database can store the data with multidimensional features. The queries on such data include location based queries, like "Where is the closest hotel in my area?".

A temporal database has built-in time aspects, for example a temporal data model and a temporal version of SQL. More specifically the temporal aspects usually include valid-time and transaction-time.

A terminology-oriented database builds upon an object-oriented database, often customized for a specific field.

An unstructured data database is intended to store in a manageable and protected way diverse objects that do not fit naturally and conveniently in common databases. It may include email messages, documents, journals, multimedia objects, etc. The name may be misleading since some objects can be highly structured. However, the entire possible object collection does not fit into a predefined structured framework. Most established DBMSs now support unstructured data in various ways, and new dedicated DBMSs are emerging.

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